Ahmed and Voges earned selection following strong domestic seasons, with the 33-year-old leg-spinner the leading wicket-taker in the Sheffield Shield with 48 wickets and 35-year-old Voges the leading run-scorer with 1,358 runs at an outstanding average of 104.
“Adam Voges and Fawad Ahmed had sensational seasons at domestic level and their performances just couldn’t be ignored,” selector Rod Marsh said in a statement on the release of the squad on Tuesday.
“They thoroughly deserve their call-up and the opportunity to be a part of this squad. We believe that both can play important roles in the side if required.”
New South Wales wicketkeeper-batsman Peter Nevill has also been selected in the test squad for the first time as Australia seeks to groom a successor for the eventual retirement of 37-year-old Brad Haddin.
The 29-year-old Nevill scored 764 runs at 76.40 throughout the Shield season including a top score of 235 not out against Tasmania in February.
“Peter Nevill has been on our radar for some time and deserves his opportunity through weight of runs and performances behind the stumps,” Marsh added.
“He has also demonstrated impressive leadership qualities which have caught our eye.”
Local media had speculated explosive batsman Maxwell might be given a place after enjoying a fine World Cup campaign that culminated in a fifth triumph on Sunday.
Maxwell struggled in two tests in 2013 against India and was brought back for one match against Pakistan in the United Arab Emirates last year but dropped from the squad for Australia’s 2-0 series win over India in the home summer.
Pace bowler Ryan Harris was listed in the 17-man squad but will sit out the tour of the Caribbean to be home for the birth of his first child.
Fast bowler James Pattinson was ruled out of the West Indies tour with an injured left hamstring sustained during the recent Shield final, which Victoria won.
He would require “intensive rehabilitation” over coming weeks, the statement said, but would be reassessed for his availability against England.
Australia play two tests against West Indies in June before the five-test Ashes series starts in England in July.
Squad – Chris Rogers, David Warner, Steven Smith, Michael Clarke (captain), Shane Watson, Adam Voges, Shaun Marsh, Mitchell Marsh, Brad Haddin, Ryan Harris*, Mitchell Starc, Josh Hazlewood, Peter Nevill, Peter Siddle, Mitchell Johnson, Nathan Lyon, Fawad Ahmed
* only for England series
(Reporting by Ian Ransom; Editing by Greg Stutchbury)